Tract housing, also known as cookie-cutter housing, refers to a style of residential development where multiple similar homes are built on a tract of land subdivided into smaller, individual lots.
This income-restricted housing development is typically found in American suburbs and is characterized by its uniformity in design, layout, and architectural style. Developed to meet the demands of rapidly expanding post-war populations, tract housing has played a significant role in the history of American urban planning.
Due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency in construction, it has become a popular choice for developers and homebuyers. This housing model caters to a wide demographic, providing housing that balances affordability with the desire for individual home ownership. Consequently, one can easily encounter examples of tract housing across many localities, attesting to its widespread adoption in the housing market.
What is Tract Housing?
Define tract housing as a type of housing development in which similar or identical houses are built on a large plot of land, often in a planned community.
Tract housing, a concept commonly encountered in the housing sector, refers to a type of housing development wherein similar or identical homes are constructed on a large expanse of land, usually forming part of a planned community. This land, referred to as a ‘tract,’ is subdivided into smaller lots, each accommodating an individual house. The housing ratio for each tract is typically high, focusing on maximizing space and cost efficiency.
Uniformity of Homes
A defining characteristic of tract housing is the uniformity of the homes in terms of architectural style, layout, and design elements. This form of housing development is favored for its efficiency in terms of construction and cost while also catering to the housing needs of a diverse population group. Despite its similarity to its neighbors, each home provides a sense of individual ownership, contributing to its popularity in the housing market.
These houses are typically designed and built by a single developer, contributing to their uniform appearance and structure. Having one developer for the entire tract allows for a consistent design theme and an efficient construction process. After the houses are completed, they are sold to individual homeowners. With its large-scale production and subsequent individual sales, this model mirrors the factory production line system, allowing for economies of scale and, thus, more affordable pricing for the end consumer.
How does Tract Housing work?
Developing tract housing is a multistage process involving various stakeholders. Here’s the process it follows:
Land Acquisition and Zoning Approval
The first step in developing tract housing is acquiring a large plot of land and obtaining zoning approval from the local authorities. This process involves ensuring the land is suitable for residential development and securing the necessary permits.
Standardized House Designs
Once the land is secured, developers typically opt for standardized house designs that can be replicated throughout the tract. This allows for a cost-effective and efficient construction process. The designs are usually based on popular architectural styles and take into consideration the target market’s preferences.
Mass Production Techniques for Construction
Mass production techniques, similar to those used in factories, are employed during construction. This includes using standardized building materials and pre-fabricated components that can be easily assembled on-site. This approach allows for a faster construction time and reduced labor costs.
Marketing and Sale of Individual Homes to Buyers
After the completion of construction, individual homes are marketed and sold to buyers. This is often done through real estate agents or directly by the developer. The pre-planned design and efficiency in construction allow for lower prices, making tract housing an attractive option for first-time homebuyers.
Establishment of a Homeowners’ Association or Management for Common Areas
In many cases, tract housing developments include common areas such as parks, playgrounds, and community centers. These are typically managed by a homeowners’ association or management company, which requires residents to pay fees for the upkeep and maintenance of these shared spaces.
Pros and Cons Of Tract Housing
Tract housing offers some pros and cons. Here are the advantages of tract housing:
Affordability due to Economies of Scale
One of the main benefits of tract housing is its cost-effectiveness. With standardized designs, materials, and construction techniques, developers can produce homes at a lower cost per unit, making them more affordable for buyers.
Availability of Standardized Amenities
Tract housing developments often include shared amenities and facilities, such as playgrounds and community centers. These are typically maintained by a homeowners’ association or management company, providing convenience for residents.
Sense of Community due to Similar Housing and Shared Spaces
The uniformity of homes and shared spaces in tract housing developments can foster community among residents. Shared amenities also provide opportunities for social interaction and neighborhood bonding.
Here are some potential drawbacks of tract housing:
Lack of Architectural Diversity
Due to the standardized nature of tract housing, there is often a lack of architectural diversity, resulting in a monotony of design and appearance. This may not appeal to buyers looking for unique or custom-built homes.
Limited Customization Options
Tract housing typically offers limited customization options for homeowners, as the designs and materials are standardized. This limitation may not suit buyers looking for more personalized or unique homes.
Potential for Crowded Neighborhoods
With a high housing ratio in a tract, there is a potential for crowded neighborhoods with limited open spaces. This high ratio may not be ideal for families or individuals looking for more space and privacy.
HOA Fees and Restrictions
Being part of a homeowners’ association or management company often means additional fees and restrictions for residents. This situation may not appeal to buyers who prefer more control over their property.
Tract housing, often called cookie-cutter housing, is a style of housing development where multiple similar homes are built on a tract of land divided into individual lots. It is a popular residential development style in American suburbs due to its cost-effectiveness and efficient construction process.
The tract housing process involves land acquisition and zoning approval, using standardized house designs, employing mass production techniques during construction, marketing and selling individual homes, and possibly establishing a homeowners’ association or management for common areas. Some advantages of tract housing include affordability due to economies of scale, availability of standardized amenities, and a sense of community. On the other hand, the drawbacks include a lack of architectural diversity, limited customization options, the potential for crowded neighborhoods, and the possibility of additional fees and restrictions from homeowners’ associations.